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AETL 




APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES / 1536 EAST VALENCIA / FULLERTON, CALIFORNIA 92631 / TEL. {714) 879-6110 

A NATIONAL TECHNICAL SERVICES COMPANY 



REPORT NO, 301-AETL-79-083-671-1489-83 



NEW VEHICLE ASSESSMENT AND STANDARDS 

ENFORCEMENT INDICANT TESTING 

OF 

FMVSS 301-75 

FUEL SYSTEM INTEGRITY 



FORD MOTOR COMPANY 

1979 FORD THUNDERBIRD - 2 DOOR HARDTOP 

NHTSA 790209 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 
1536 EAST VALENCIA DRIVE 
FULLERTON, CALIFORNIA 926 31 










OCTOBER 197 9 

FINAL REPORT 

PREPARED FOR 

U- S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 
NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION 

- ENFORCEMENT - 
OFFICE OF VEHICLE SAFETY COMPLIANCE 
400 SEVENTH STREET S. W. 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20590 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



This final test report was prepared for the 
U. S. Department of Transportation, National 
Highway Traffic Safety Administration , under 
Contract Number DOT-HS-6-01477 . This document 
is disseminated under the sponsorship of the 
U. S. Department of Transportation in the 
interest of information exchange. The United 
States Government assumes no liability for 
its contents or use thereof. 



Final Report Accepted By: 

NHTSA Contract Technical Manager 



ia 



l Mllll 



Date of Report Acceptance 



1. Report No. 
301-AETL-79-083 



2 . Government 
Accession No 



4. Title and Subtitle 

New Vehicle Assessment and Standards 
Enforcement Indicant Testing of FMVSS 
301-75 - 1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door 
Hardtop - NHTSA 790209 



3. Recipient's Catalog No. 



5, Report Date 

December 3, 197 9 



6. Performing Organization 
Code 



Author (s) 



*\ 9Jf* 9^ Gk<**£P Project Engineer 



9. Performing Organization Name 
and Address 
Approved Engineering Test Laboratories 
1536 East Valencia Drive 
Fullerton, California 92631 

Phone No. (714) 879-6110 



8. Performing Organization 
Report No, 

671-1489-83 



10. Work Unit. No 



11. Contract or Grant No 
DOT-HS-6-01477 



12. 



and 



Sponsoring Agency Name 

Address 
U. S. Department of Transportation 
National Highway Traffic Safety Admin. 
Enforcement 

Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance 
400 Seventh Street S. W. 
Washington, D. C. 20590 



13. Type of Report and Period 
Covered 

Final Report 

Sept. 4 - Sept. 19, 1979 



14. Sponsoring Agency Code 



15. Supplementary Notes 
Approved i^S r l .(j ($XX^v^ 



Mechanical Dept. Supervisor 
Approved Engineering Test Labs 



16. Abstract 

A 1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop, NHTSA 7 90209, was impact 
tested for compliance indicant with FMVSS 3 01-75 (Fuel System Integrity) 
and vehicle assessment data. 

As a parallel effort with FMVSS 301-75 vehicle safety test, the 
anthropomorphic dummies and the test vehicle were instrumented with 
accelerometers to measure occupant response and vehicle acceleration. 

The average moving barrier impact speed was 35.190 mph in the rear 
(0°) mode. Test date was September 19, 1979, and the ambient tempera- 
ture was 100 °F. 



17. Key Words 

New Vehicle Assessment 
Standards Enforcement Indicant 
FMVSS 301-75 - Fuel System Integrity 



18. Distribution Statement 



19. Security Class. 
(of this report) 

Unclassified 



20. Security Class, 
(of this page) 

Unclassified 



21. 



No. of 
Pages 

105 * 



22. Price 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Section Paragraph Description 



1.0 
1.1 



Introduction 
Administrative Data 



Page 

8 
9 



2.0 



Test Data 



12 



3.0 



3.1 



Occupant Response and Vehicle 
Acceleration Data 

Instrumentation Malfunction 



19 
19 



4.0 



Test Results and Photographs 



26 



5.0 
5.1 
5.2 
5.3 
5.4 
5.5 
5.6 
5.7 



Test Facilities and Equipment 
Frontal Collision Barrier Facility 
Oblique Angle Collision Barrier 
Moving Collision Barrier 
Vehicle Static Rollover Machine 
Impact Velocity Measurement 
Photographic Coverage 
Data Acquisition and Reduction 



59 
59 
61 
62 

63 
63 
65 
67 



Appendix A 



Computer Plots 



77 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



TABLES 

Tables Description Page 

I Summary of Test Conditions 13 

III Post-Impact Summary 16 

VI Post-Impact Summary ' 17 

3-1 Part 572 Dummy Data 20 

3-2 Vehicle Structural Data 21 

3-3 Vehicle Measurement Data 22 

3-4 Vehicle Measurement Data 23 

5-1 Instrumentation for Crash Test 73 

5-2 Data Acquisition and Reduction Process 74 



5-3 Data Designations for Vehicle Crash Impact 75 

Data Acquisition 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Figure Description Page 

4-1 Pre-Test f Left Side View 28 

4-2 Pre-Test, Full Rear View 30 

4-3 Pre-Test, Right Side View 32 

4-4 Pre-Test, Driver Dummy View 34 

4-5 Pre-Test f Passenger Dummy View 36 

4-6 Pre-Test, Fuel Tank View 38 

4-7 Pre-Test, Fuel Tank Left Side View 40 

4-8 Pre-Test, Fuel Tank Left Front View 42 

4-9 Post-Impact, Left Side View 44 

4-10 Post-Impact, Full Rear View 46 

4-11 Post-Impact, Driver Dummy View 48 

4-12 Post-Impact, Passenger Dummy View 50 

4-13 Post-Impact, Fuel Spillage 52 

4-14 Post-Impact, Fuel Tank Deformation 54 

4-15 Post-Impact, Fuel Tank Rupture Area View 56 

5-1 Vehicle and Occupant Crash Impact Data 72 
Acquisition 

5-2 Comparison Plot of SAE Class 60, 180, 76 
600 and 1000 Filters 




APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



1.0 INTRODUCTION 



This report contains information regarding a joint pro- 
gram for the Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance (OVSC) , 
Office of Automotive Ratings (OAR) , and Research and 
Development (R & D) for a vehicle assessment and stan- 
dards enforcement indicant test of fuel system integrity 
relative to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 
No. 301-75. This test was performed under Contract 
Number DOT-HS-6-01477 by Approved Engineering Test 
Laboratories, 1536 East Valencia Drive, Fullerton, 
California in accordance with the Office of Vehicle 
Safety Compliance (OVSC) Laboratory Procedures (TP212-01) . 

.The specific purpose of this test was to obtain research 
and vehicle rating data in conjucntion with fuel system 
integrity indicant data, when a vehicle is impacted in 
excess of the velocity (30 mph) requirement of FMVSS 301-75. 

Section 2 contains vehicle fuel system compliance related 
data, while Section 3 contains occupant response and vehicle 
acceleration summary data. Section 4 is the test results 
and photographs. Section 5 discusses AETL's test facilities 
and data acquisition and reduction system. 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



1.1 ADMINISTRATIVE DATA 



A. References: 



1. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 301-75 
"Fuel System Integrity" as published in the 
Federal Register, Volume 38, No. 22397, dated 
August 20, 1979 

2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration - 
Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance Laboratory 
Procedures for Vehicle Assessment and Indicant 
Testing for "Windshield Mounting", FMVSS 212 - 
"Windshield Zone Intrusion", FMVSS 219 - "Fuel 
System Integrity", FMVSS 301-75, TP212-01, dated 
March 20, 1979. 

B. Description of Test Vehicle 

1. 197 9 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 

2. Vehicle Identification No.: 9J87H135770 

3. NHTSA No. : 790209 

4. Manufactured Date: December 197 8 

5. GVWR: 5,816 pounds 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



C«. Dates 



1. Vehicle Received: March 23, 1979 

2. Start of Test: September 4, 1979 

3. Completion of Test: September 19 , 1979 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 2 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 2 



2.0 TEST DATA 



The 1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop was subjected 
to a rear moving barrier impact as required by Federal 
Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 301-75 . 

Color motion picture coverage of the impact test are con- 
sidered part of the accumulated pertinent data* Where 
applicable, still photographs are presented in this report; 
while the motion picture coverage is submitted separately. 



_ no 



TABLE I 



SUMMARY OF TEST CONDITIONS 



TEST VEHICLE INFORMATION; 



Manufacturer : Ford Motor Company 



Make /Model : Ford Thunderbird 

Body Style: 2 Door Hardtop 

VIN: 9J87H135770 



Model Year: 1979 



Build Date: December 1978 



NHTSA No. : 



790209 



Engine Data: Eight (8) 



Color: White w/Blue Vinyl Roof 
Cylinders; 351 Cu. In. Displ. 



Transmission Data: Three (3) Speed ( ) Manual &XX) Automatic 
Major Options: Tilt Steering Wheel , Cruise Control, Air Condition 



VEHICLE ATTITUDE : 

Delivered Attitude: L F 28.75 in. ; RF 29.50 j n .; lr t i 2SL00 m .; R R 29.50 j j 

Test Attitude: LF 28.50 in.; RF 2 9.25 in.; LR 27.20 in. ; RR 27.75 jj 



VEHICLE TIRE DATA: 



Recommended Cold Tire Pressure: 
(Up to Vehicle Load Capacity) 



Front = 
Rear = 



30 



30 



psi 
psi 



Recommended Tire Size: 

Tires on Vehicle: 

Spare Tire: X Yes; 



GR78-15 



Load Range : 



GR78-15 - w/s/w - Michelin 



B 



No; Space Saver 



Yes; 



No 



TABLE la 



SUMMARY OF TEST CONDITIONS (Cont'd) 



TEST CONDITIONS ; 

Date of Test: September 19, 197 9 Time of Test 



1518 



Ambient Temperature 



100 



F at Impact Area 



VEHICLE CAPACITY 



Type of Seats 



Bench; 



Designated Seating Capacity 



Cargo: 



200 lbs. 



Bucket; 


X 


Split Bench 


Front 


3 




Center 
Rear 



3 




Total 


6 





Total 1,100 lbs, (Vehicle Capacity Weight) 

GVWR: 5 y 816 lbs. (Taken From Certification Label) 

GAWR: Front 2,957 lbs.; Rear 2,909 lbs. 



VEHICLE DELIVERED WEIGHT : (Fluids to Capacity) 

Left Front 1,242 lbs. Left Rear 958 lbs. 

Right Front 1,196 lbs. Right Rear 946 lbs. 

Total Front Weight 2,438 lbs. ( 56.1 % of Total Vehicle Weight) 

Total Rear Weight 1,904 lbs. ( 43.9 % of Total Vehicle Weight) 

Total Delivered Weight 4,342 lbs. 



CALCULATED VEHICLE TEST WEIGHT: 4,870 



(With Required Dummies and 



200 



lbs. 

lbs. Cargo) 



ACTUAL VEHICLE TEST WEIGHT: 



Left Front 
Right Front 



1,320 



1,237 



Total Front Weight 
Total Rear Weight 
Total Test Weight 



lbs. 
lbs. 

2,557 lbs 
2,297 lbs 
4,854 lbs 



Left Rear 
Right Rear 



1,149 



1,148 



lbs 

lbs 



( 52.7 % of Total Vehicle Weight) 
( 47.3 % of Total Vehicle Weight) 



* 



ft 



TABLE lb 
SUMMARY OF TEST CONDITIONS (Cont'd ) 

TEST FLUID DATA : 

Test Fluid Type: Red Stoddard Solvent : Specific Gravity: 0.764 

Kinematic Viscosity: 1,31 

Spill Point Volume: 30.60 gals. (SPV) 

Test Volume: 27.54 gals . (90 -93% of SPV 

gals. 



Fuel System Capacity: 

(Data from Owner's Manual) 

Electric Fuel Pump: Yes; 



21.0 (27.5 RPO) 



X No; Fuel Injection: 



Yes ; X 



No 



Does Electric Fuel Pump Operate with Ignition Switch "On" 

And the Engine Not Operating: Yes; No ; X n/A 

Details of Fuel System: Fuel filler located on left rear fender aft of 
rear wheel opening recessed behind a hinged door, fuel tank located 



horizontally between frame side rails aft of dif ferential under trunk 
floor pan. 



VEHICLE CRUSH AND REBOUND : 

Overall Length of Test Vehicle: Pre-Test = Left 213.0 i n.; Right 213.0 in. 

Post-Test = Left 195. 5 in. ; Right 196.0 in. 

Crush: Left 17.5 j n . ; Right 17.0 i n# 

Rebound (From Rigid Barrier Only) : N/A i n# 



- 15 - 



• 



• 



TABLE III 



POST IMPACT SUMMARY 



Vehicle 1979 Ford Thunderbird 



NHTSA No. 79Q209 Test Date September 19, 1979 



TYPE OF TEST ; | | W Frontal Impact 

| 1 30° Oblique Impact (Driver/Passenger) Side 

| XXX 1 Rear Impact 
REQUIRED IMPACT VELOCITY RANGE : 34.5 to 35.5 mph 



IMPACT VELOCITY : (Traps within 5 feet of impact event) 

Trap 1 « 35.15 mph 

Trap 2 = 35.23 mph 

Average 35.190 mph 

Actual distance from impact point to midpoint of Traps = . 2.0 ft. 



VEHICLE STATIC CRUSH : Driver's Side = 17.50 inches 

Passenger's Side = 17.00 inches 

• " Average = 17.25 inches 

Crush Details; Both rear wheels were jammed, both frame rails buckled 
over rear axle, fuel tank was nearly touching the ground, both front 
9 seat backs bent onto rear seat cushion. 



VEHICLE REBOUND : (From rigid barrier only) 

Driver's Side = n/A inches 

Passenger's Side = N/A inches 

Average = N/A inches 



- i a __ 



TABLE VI 



POST IMPACT SUMMARY 



FUEL SYSTEM INTEGRITY - FMVSS 301-75 



Vehicle 1979 Ford Thunderbird 



NHTSA No. 790209 



Test Date September 19 , 197 9 





Actual 


Max. Allow. 


Fuel spillage from impact until 
vehicle motion ceases. 


irrrneasureable 


1 ounce 


Fuel spillage for 5 minute period 
following cessation of vehicle 
motion after impact. 


27.0 oz. 


5 ounces 


Fuel spillage for next 2 5 minute 
period. 


109.0 oz. 
(4.4 oz./min. ) 


1 ounce/ 
1 minute 


Time duration from impact until 
start of 'rollover test periods. 


N/A 


30 

minutes 



Fuel Spillage Location: Upper left front corner of fuel tank was ruptured 



NOTE: No rollover test was conducted - test terminiated at conclusion 



of the thirty (3 0) minute post-impact period. 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 3 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 3 



3*0 OCCUPANT RESPONSE AND VEHICLE ACCELERATION SUMMARY DATA 



The following data sheets summarize: 

A. The occupant response data (Part 572 Dummy Data 
Sheet) 

B. The vehicle acceleration data (Vehicle Structural 
Data Sheet) 

C. The Pre and Post-Test vehicle dimensions data 

(Vehicle Measurement Data Sheets) 

More comprehensive data is presented in Appendix A in 
the form of computer-generated plots. 



3.1 INSTRUMENTATION MALFUNCTION 

The driver dummy lateral chest accelerometer response (Tape 1, 
channel 6) and passenger dummy lateral chest accelerometer 
response (Tape 2, channel 6) data was not acquired after 
impact initiation due to apparent accelerometer/cable 
failure. 



- 19 - 



TABLE 3-1 
PART 5 72 DUMMY DATA 



Vehicle 



1979 Ford Thunderbird 



NHTSA No. 



790209 



Driver S/N 0353 
Passenger S/N 0354 


DRIVER 


PASSENGER 


Positive* 

Direction 


Negative* 
Direction 


Positive* 
Direction 


Negative* 
Direction 


Peak 

G 


Time 
(msec) 


Peak 
G 


Time 
(msec) 


Peak 
G 


Time 
(msec) 


Peak 
G 


Time 
(msec) 


Head Acceleration 






Longitudinal 


18,7 


146.5 


0.7 


89.5 


15.3 


132.5 


5.3 


265.0 


Lateral 


5.3 


154.5 


2.0 


85.0 


3.0 


334.0 


5.5 


145.0 


Vertical 


2.4 


293.5 


13.5 


122.0 


2.1 


46.5 


17.1 


122.5 


Resultant 


21.4 


146.5 






22.0 


132.0 






HIC 


52.5 (105-204 msec) 


70.9 (100-182 msec) 


Chest Acceleration 






Longitudinal 


13.5 


114.5 


3.3 


435.5 


11.9 


102.5 


2.6 


475.5 


Lateral 


No D 


ata Ace 


uired 






No Data 


Acquired 


Vertical 


2.7 


291.5 


10.2 


119.5 


2.4 


413.0 


7.0 


145.0 


Resultant 


15.9 


114.5 






13.7 


102.5 






Severity Index 


26.6 (13. 9g - 3 msec clip 


25.4 (13. 4g - 3 msec clip) 


Femur Loads 


(lb) 


Time 
(msec) 


(lb) 


Time 
(msec) 


(lb) 


Time 
(msec) 


(lb) 


Time 
(msec) 


Left 


90 


89.5 


204 


66.5 


86 


373.5 


184 


57.0 


Right 


40 


353.0 


151 


62.5 


78 


506.5 


200 


51.0 


Belt Load 






Torso 


10 


140.0 


8 


234.0 




Unknown 






Average Vehicle Impact Speed 35.190 mph 


* Positive Direction - Longitudinal: Forward 

Lateral: Leftward 
Vertical: Upward 
Femur: Tension 

*Negative Direction - Longitudinal: Rearward 

Lateral : Rightward 
Vertical: Downward 
Femur: Compression 



TABLE 3-2 
VEHICLE STRUCTURAL DATA 



n C" POST 



A" POST 




DIMENSIONS 



LOCATION 



B 



MEASUREMENT (IN.) 



15.3 



J3/A 



26. Q 



-8,5 (ahead of "B" post) 



ACCELEROMETER 
LOCATION 



NO. 1 LONGITUDINAL 



NO. 1 VERTICAL 



NO. 2 LONGITUDINAL 



NO. 2 VERTICAL 



NO. 3 LONGITUDINAL 



NO. 3 VERTICAL 



NO. 4 LONGITUDINAL 



NO. 4 VERTICAL 



NO. 5 LONGITUDINAL 



NO. 5 VERTICAL 



NO. 6 LONGITUDINAL 



NO. 6 LATERAL 



NO. 6 VERTICAL 



LOCATION 



ACCELERATION PEAKS 



POSITIVE* 
DIRECTION 



PEAK 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



15.0 



16.8 



16.6 



15.9 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



^POSITIVE - LONGITUDINAL: Forward 
DIRECTION LATERAL: Leftward 
VERTICAL: Upward 



TIME 
(MSEC) 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



14.5 



34.5 



58.0 



21.5 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



MEASUREMENT (IN.) 



12.5 



38.0 



26.5 



NEGATIVE* 
DIRECTION 



PEAK 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



4.1 



12.1 



4.3 



16.7 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



TIME 
(MSEC) 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



N/A 



347.5 



16.0 



232.0 



58.5 



N/A 



U/A 



N/A 



*NEGATIVE - LONGITUDINAL: Rearward 
DIRECTION LATERAL: Rightward 
VERTICAL: Downward 



TABLE 3-3 
PRE-TEST 
VEHICLE MEASUREMENT DATA 




151.3" 
150.8" 

120.5" 



-22 - 



TABLE 3-4 



VEHICLE MEASUREMENT DATA 



197.0" 
160.0" 

24.5" 
132.0" 

117.4" 
117.8" 

66.0" 
66.3" 



64.8" 
64.8" 

116.8" 
117.0" 




130.0" 
132.0" 

100.5" 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SUMMARY 



PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST VEHICLE DIMENSIONS 



Measurement Point 


Pre-Test 
217.3" 


Post-Test 
197.0" 


Difference 


XI 


20.3" 


X2 


180.8" 


160.0" 


20.8" 


X3 


152.5" 


132.0" 


20.5" 


X4 


137.0" 


117.4" 


19.6" 


X5 


136.5" 


117.8" 


18.7" 


X6 


136.5" 


116.8" 


19.7" 


X7 


136.0" 


117.0" 


19.0" 


X8 


85.0" 


66.0" 


19.0" 


X9 


85.5" 


66.3" 


19.2" 


X10 


84.3" 


64.8" 


19.5" 


Xll 


84.0" 


64.8" 


19.2" 


X12 


136.3" 


116. 0" 


20.3" 


X13 


135.0" 


116.0" 


19.0" 


X14 


151.3" 


130.0" 


21.3" 


X15 


150.8" 


132.0" 


18.8" 


X16 


120.5" 


100.5" 


20.0" 


X17 


14.0" 


16.0" 


2.0" 


X18 


16.0" 


17.8" 


1.8" 


X19 


213.0" 


196.0" 


17.0" 


X20 


213.0" 


195.5" 


17.5" 


X21 


24.5" 


24.5" 


0.0" 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 4 



- ?^ 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



4.0 TEST RESULTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

The test vehicle performance was determined by a rear 
moving barrier impact at an average speed of 35.190 mph. 
No static rollover test was conducted due to excessive 
fuel spillage following the barrier impact. 

Two (2) Part 572 test dummies were positioned in each 
designated outboard seating position and were restrained 
by the belt system in the test vehicle. Just prior to the 
impact event the driver dummy head was painted with white 
chalk and the passenger dummy head was painted with red 
chalk to provide post-impact visual inspection of possible 
dummy head contact with interior components during the 
impact event. 

Post-impact inspection of the test vehicle revealed almost 
all crush occurred rearward of the front doors. All windows 
remained unbroken and both rear fenders yielded forward 
leaving the outer door shells overlapping the fenders. The 
left and right door were unlatched easily and required 
•moderate effort to open. Both rear wheels were jammed and 
the left and right frame rails buckled over the rear axle. 
The rear portion of the vehicle rotated downward leaving 
the gas tank nearly touching the ground surface. Both 
front seat assemblies deformed and the seat backs bent back- 
ward onto the rear seat cushion. 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



The upper left front corner of the fuel tank ruptured 
allowing more fuel spillage than the collected quan- 
tity stated herein. The test was terminated at the 
conclusion of the allowable thirty (30) minute time 
duration from impact to start of the rollover test. 



nn 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-1 

1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 

NHTSA 790209 

Pre-Test, Left Side View 



- 9Q _ 




- 29 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-2 

1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 

NHTSA 790209 

Pre-Test, Full Rear View 




- 31 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-3 
1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 790209 
Pre-Test, Right Side View 



- 19 - 




33 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-4 
1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 7 9020 9 
Pre-Test, Driver Dummy View 




35 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-5 

1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 

NHTSA 7 90209 

Pre-Test, Passenger Dummy View 





\ 



- 37 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-6 

1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 

NHTSA 790209 

Pre-Test, Fuel Tank View 




- 39 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-7 

1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 

NHTSA 7 902 09 

Pre-Test, Fuel Tank Left Side View 




* 



• 



- 41 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-8 
1979 Ford Thunder bird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 790209 
Pre-Test, Fuel Tank Left Front View 







- 43 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-9 
1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 7 90209 
Post-Impact, Left Side View 




- 45 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-10 
1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 790209 
Post-Impact, Full Rear View 



- 46 - 




- 47 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-11 
1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 790209 
Post- Impact, Driver Dummy View 




49 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



Figure 4-12 
1979 Ford Thunder bird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 790209 
Post- Impact, Passenger Dummy View 




- 51 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



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Figure 4-13 
1979 Ford Thunder bird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 790209 
* Post-Impact, Fuel Spillage 



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- 53 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



W:: 



Figure 4-14 
1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 79020 9 
Post-Impact, Fuel Tank Deformation 




- 55 - 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



wi. 



Figure 4-15 
1979 Ford Thunderbird - 2 Door Hardtop 
NHTSA 79 0209 
Post- Impact, Fuel Tank Rupture Area View 




57 - 



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APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



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SECTION 5 



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APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 5 

5.0 TEST FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT 

Approved Engineering Test Laboratories (AETL) collision 
barriers, vehicle static rollover machine, and data 
processing/computer analysis test facilities are located 
at the Fullerton, California Division. 

This section discusses these specialized facilities, along 
with associated equipment and instrumentation required for 
the performance of this test. 

5.1 FRONTAL COLLISION BARRIER FACILITY 

5.1.1 The frontal (fixed) collision barrier conforms to the re- 
quirements as set by the NHTSA Office of Vehicle Safety 
Compliance (OVSC) and as defined in the Laboratory Procedures 
for FMVSS 212/219/301-75, TP219-02, dated January 9, 1979, 
with the following special characteristics. 

5.1.2 The fixed collision barrier is a steel clad, steel reinforced 
concrete block with a 6M" X 12' face. The face is 1" steel 
plate faced with 3/4 inch plywood. The total mass of the 
structure is approximately 200,000 pounds, with a substantial 
portion below ground to provide resistance against sliding or 
tipping • of the barrier during impact . 



h 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



5.1.3 The facility consists of a 500 foot concrete paved runway , 
q with a steel monorail embedded in the approach surface. 

Two camera pits are provided to allow photographing the 
test vehicle at impact. One pit is located immediately 
C^ in front of the fixed collision barrier and is 36 inches 

wide (expandable to 48 inches), 7 feet deep, and 23 feet 
long (3 feet of the pit length extends under the 

• barrier face) . The second (mid) pit with removable 
monorail section is located approximately 160 feet from 
the fixed collision barrier and is 43 inches wide, 7 feet 

'•' deep, and 23 feet long. 

5.1.4 Tow propulsion is provided by a fixed prime mover and 

• continuous cable drive system located near the mid camera 
pit position. The power plant for the tow cable system is 
a 200 h.p. synchrouous electric motor, coupled to an 

• electronically controlled Eddy Current Clutch and a 4:1 
gear reduction transfer assembly. 

• The endless 1/2 inch diameter steel tow cable is wrapped 
around the drive pulley and is tensioned by a pneumatic 
loaded idler wheel. The tow cable passes through the 

p fixed collision barrier and around fixed idler pulleys 

to complete the loop. The test vehicle or moving collision 
barrier is towed by a dolly assembly attached to the vehicle 



h 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 5 



or moving collision barrier by a shear pin release mech- 
anism. For a fixed collision barrier test, the test 
vehicle is towed within 2 feet of the fixed barrier, 
at which point the towing dolly assembly is disconnected 
from the test vehicle and the test vehicle proceeds under 
its own momentum for the final 2 feet to impact. For a 
moving collision barrier test, the moving collision barrier 
is towed within 5 feet of the test vehicle, at which point 
the towing dolly is disconnected from the moving collision 
barrier and the moving collision barrier proceeds under its 
own momentum for the final 5 feet to impact. Heavy steel 
stops actuate the tow cable release mechanism and prevent 
the towing dolly from continuing past the point of impact. 
The towing dolly is designed to fit inside the monorail such 
that it is constrained in the vertical and lateral directions, 
and capable of sliding freely along the monorail. 

5.2 OBLIQUE ANGLE COLLISION BARRIER 

5.2.1 The oblique angle collision barrier conforms to the requirements 
as set by NHTSA Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance (OVSC) 
Laboratory Procedures TP219-02, with the following special 
characteristics . 



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■:3 



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5.2.2 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 

SECTION 5 



The oblique angle collision barrier is constructed of a 
flat 1 1/2 inch steel plate faced with 3/4 inch plywood. 
The barrier face is 6' x 12' and is adjustable for left 
or right angle impacts by means of seven tubular gussets 
that attach to the standard fixed frontal collision 
barrier to form a rigid buttress structure. 



5 - 3 MOVING COLLISION BARRIER 

5.3.1 The moving collision barrier conforms to the requirements 
as set by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, 
Paragraph S8.2 with the following special characteristics. 

5.3.2 The chassis is constructed of 12 inch steel channel with 
tubular frame gussets. The flat impacting face plate is 
1/2 inch steel plate faced with 3/4 inch plywood. The 
face plate is reinforced with 6 inch steel channel hori- 
zontally welded to the chassis to form a rigid symetrical 
structure. A camera boom extends above the barrier face 
plane to provide a view of barrier to vehicle impact. The 
barrier assembly weighs 3,977 pounds and has a four wheel 
electric brake system. 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



5.4 VEHICLE STATIC ROLLOVER MACHINE 

£ 5.4.1 The vehicle static rollover machine conforms to the re- 
quirements as set by the NHTSA Office of Vehicle Safety 
Compliance (OVSC) Laboratory Procedures TP219-02 with the 

£ following special characteristics. 

5.4.2 The vehicle static rollover machine is constructed of 10 
9 inch square tube with adjustable wheelbase and tread width 

platforms to accommodate the various test vehicles. The 
total usable platform area is 8 feet wide and 25 feet long 
£~ with special design feature to accomodate vehicles with a 

gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds or 
less with various body configuration heights to 12 feet. 
• The test vehicle can be rotated left or right and can turn 

each 90° rotational increment in approximately two (2) 
minutes* 

5.5 IMPACT VELOCITY MEASUREMENT 

The test vehicle impact velocity is measured by two (2) 
separate certification timing trap systems located within 
five (5) feet of the fixed collision barrier face and to 
one side on the approach apron. Each trap contains two (2) 



* 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



carbon rods, mounted twenty-four (24) inches apart, in a 
mechanical housing assembly providing start and stop cir- 
cuits to two (2) independant digital display counters. 
As the test vehicle traverses the impact apron, a blade 
attached to the test vehicle fender breaks each carbon 
rod providing the precise measurement of time interval for 
the test vehicle to advance the known distance. Each in- 
terval time measurement is stored in the digital display 
counters and photographically recorded. 

The moving collision barrier impact velocity is measured by 
two (2) separate certification timing trap systems located 
within five (5) feet of the barrier to vehicle impact 
location. Each timing trap system is controlled by a 
twelve (12) inch long target blade attached to the moving 
collision barrier to provide the precise measurement of 
time interval required for the target blade to pass through 
an optical beam. Each interval of time measurement is 
stored in a digital display counter and photographically 
recorded. 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



5.6 PHOTOGRAPH COVERAGE 

5.6.1 Because FMVSS 212/219/301-75 may be a combined test, it is 
necessary that all photographic coverage of the test vehicle 
be done at one time with specific photographs to document 
the areas for Vehicle Safety Compliance consideration; 
windshield area and the fuel system. Each report will 
utilize only those photographs pretaining to the Vehicle 
Safety Compliance Test being reported. 

5.6.2 FIXED BARRIER IMPACT TEST 

Motion picture coverage of the event employs four (4) 16mm 
IB Photo-Sonics cameras and two (2) 16mm 51 Redlake Locam 
cameras using color film at 500 frames per second (fps) . 
Also a 16mm Canon Scoopic 24 frames per second (fps) 
camera with color film is used to record vehicle pre-test 
condition, vehicle in-run, impact, and post-impact vehicle 
conditions including the rollover increments for documentary 
purposes. The six (6) high speed cameras are located at 
stationary positions near the point of impact. One is an 
overhead camera mounted on a tower above the fixed barrier 
face on center line of the test vehicle at impact. Its field 
of view includes the barrier face and the front of the vehicle 
to a point about one foot aft of the windshield. A second 
camera is mounted on top of the fixed barrier with its field 



- fL* _ 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



of view concentrating on the windshield area (FMVSS 212/219). 
The third and fourth cameras each have a side view of the 
test vehicle at impact. The fifth and sixth cameras are 
located in the pit and positioned to photograph the under- 
side of the engine compartment and fuel tank area. 

5.6.3 MOVING BARRIER IMPACT TEST 

Motion picture coverage of the event employs four (4) 16mm 
IB Photo Sonics cameras and two (2) 16mm 51 Redlake Locam 
cameras using color film at 500 frames per second (fps) . 
Also a 16mm Canon Scoopic 24 frames per second (fps) camera 
with color film is used to record vehicle pre-test condition, 
barrier in-run, impact, and post-impact vehicle conditions 
including the rollover increments for documentary purposes. 
Five (5) of the high speed cameras are located at stationary 
positions near the point of impact. Three (3) cameras are 
located in the pit and positioned to photograph the under- 
side of the engine compartment, with overlapping field of 
views, aft to the fuel tank area. The fourth and fifth 
cameras each have a side view of the test vehicle at impact. 
The sixth camera is attached to the moving collision barrier 
to photograph the contact between the barrier and the test 
vehicle. 



- ££ 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 

SECTION 5 

5.6.4 Time data from two (2) sources are contained in the high 

speed film coverage. The first time reference is a 100 pps 
timing pulse along the film edge. This pulse is generated 
by a pulse generator and fed to all high speed cameras. 
Thus, it is possible to relate film data to a real time 
base. The second time record is an indication of time 
zero (moment of impact) . This is accomplished by a trip 
switch and strobe light system. The trip switch is positioned 
at the impact point so that it triggers the strobe light sys- 
tem at the moment of bumper-barrier contact. Thus, the 
particular film frame corresponding to the point of impact 
is clearly indicated on all the high speed film 

5.7 DATA ACQUISITION AND REDUCTION 

.The data acquisition and analysis system used for acquir- 
ing occupant response and vehicle acceleration are shown 
schematically in Figure 5-1. A complete list of instrumen- 
tation is provided in Table 5-1. An itemized procedure 
for acquiring data is provided on Table 5-2. 

Prior to the vehicle impact test the onboard instrumenta- 
tion package is installed and a calibration and null re- 
ference check is performed to checkout all data analog 
devices including the FM magnetic tape recorders. The 
' moment of impact trigger switch attached to the vehicle 



_ en 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 

SECTION 5 

is also checked out. Immediately following vehicle impact 
a post-impact calibration and null reference check is 
performed. 

The analog data is then played back into a Hewlett Packard 
Digital Fourier Analyzer (DFA) system using a HP 2100S 
mini computer with 32K word core storage. This system uses 
four program controlled analog filters which provides 
predigitizing filter capability of 60 db/octave above 1250 Hz. 

The DFA is a hard disc based system with standard HP design 
software for performing data acquisition and analysis 
functions. The HP software is programmed using direct 
keyboard functions to automate the data reduction 
process. The data is. entered into temporary storage, four 
channels (one set) at a time with eight total sets. Table 
5-3 defines each data channel and data set. The data sets 
are divided into driver and passenger tape recorder groups 
to facilitate simultaneous data acquisition for the head, chest 
and vehicle accelerometers to assure appropriate calibration 
of injury criteria and vehicle dynamics. At the time of 
entry, test personnel enter the appropriate calibration for 
each data channel and the computer then scales the data 
appropriately. When all data has been acquired it is moved 
as a vehicle set to permanent storage on a removable magnetic 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 5 



disc* (Eight vehicle sets are stored on each magnetic disc. 
All magnetic discs and FM recorder tapes are retained on 
file at AETL) . 

The only modifications to the data at the time of permanent 
storage is the filtering and digitizing process of the FM 
tape recorder (2500 Hz) and the DFA (2000 Hz sampling for a 
500 ms window) . After the data is moved to permanent storage 
it is recalled by test personnel and plotted with the appro- 
priate labels and vehicle designation. As the data is re- 
called, the DFA is programmed to automatically apply the 
appropriate SAE filter where applicable. 

A 1250 Hz predigitizing analog filter with a rolloff of 
60 db/octave, shown in figure 5-2, was applied to all data. 
Also shown in figure 5-2 are SAE class 60 and class 180 
filters. These filters are in accordance with SAE J211a, 
Instrumentation for Impact Tests. These SAE recommended 
filters are quadratic double pole with 65% damping and a 
12 db/octave rolloff. They are applied using a fast 
fourier transform of the data, frequency domain multi- 
plication, and an inverse fast fourier transform of the 
product. The class 60 filters is applied to vehicle 
acceleration and belt restraint forces. The class 180 
filter is applied to chest acceleration. SAE filters were 
not applied to head accelerations and femur forces. 






APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 



5.7*1 IMPACT DATA 



All impact data is presented in computer plots of data 
digitized at 500 microseconds. Special SAE filters are 
applied to appropriate data sets. Each data plot includes 
labeling, defining the test vehicle, filter class, and the 
complete identification of the data plotted. 



5.7.1.2 DUMMY HEAD DATA 



The dummy head accelerations are processed and the Head 
Injury Criteria (HIC) calculation is performed. The HIC 
calculations are maximized for start time (Tl) and end 
time (T2), using a manual iteration routine, usually 
requiring about ten interations and between 5,000 and 
10,000 combinations of start and end times. Data out- 
put is in the form of computer plots with the final 
HIC calculations. Listing of data value and HIC cal- 
culations are available, but not provided in the final 
report. 



g 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SECTION 5 



5.7.1.3 DUMMY CHEST DATA 



The dummy chest accelerations are processed as class 180 
data, and direct Chest Severity Index (CSI) calculations 
are performed. Data output is in the form of computer 
plots with the CSI calculations. 



5.7.1.4 FEMUR LOAD DATA 



The dummy femur loads are processed and presented as 
computer plots. 



5.7.1.5 RESTRAINT LOAD DATA 

* The dummy restraint loads are processed as class 60 data, 
and presented as computer plots. 

5.7.1.6 VEHICLE ACCELERATION DATA 

The vehicle accelerations are processed as class 60 data, 
and presented as computer plots. 




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APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



TABLE 5-2 
DATA ACQUISITION AND REDUCTION PROCESS 

STEP DESCRIPTION 

1 DA System Installation 

2 DA System Pre-Impact Calibration 

3 Impact Trigger Checkout 

4 Vehicle Impact Performed 

5 DA System Post-Impact Calibration 

6 Data Reproduced From FM Tape Into Computer 

a) Data analog filtered at 1250 Hz 

b) Data digitized at 500 ms sample rate 

c) Data sychronized by impact trigger signal 

7 Digitized Data Examined 

8 Data Transfered Permanent Disc Storage 

9 Appropriate SAE Filters Are Applied 

10 Each Data Signal Plotted With Lables 

11 Chest Severity Index Values Determined 

12 • Head Injury Criteria Values Determined 











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APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



APPENDIX A 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



APPENDIX A 



The following computer plots provide complete and 
comprehensive occupant response and vehicle accele 
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APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 



SERVICE FOR: 



IK So Department of Transportation 

National Highway Traffic Safety Administratior 

Enforcement 

Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance 

400 Seventh Street S.W. 

Washington, D. C. 20590 



PURCHASE ORDER NUMBER: DOT-HS-6-01477 



I hereby certify that the preceding report is true and correct to 
the best of my knowledge. 



APPROVED ENGINEERING TEST LABORATORIES 




R* D. Shortr Division Manager 



R. E. Allen, P.E., Dynamics 
R&D Department Manager 



D. H. Hand, Project Engineer 



X. E. Allen, P.E., Dynamics *fSZ J\\ Valenzuela, Mechanical 



Department Supervi sor 



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4 s < hZT 



McKelligdtt, P 
Quality Assurance Manager 



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